To compare overall survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients who are randomized to standard systemic therapy (SST) plus definitive treatment of the primary tumor versus standard systemic therapy alone.
- To compare overall survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients who received SST plus surgical excision of the primary tumor versus SST alone in the subset who specify the surgical intent stratification factor.
- To compare the rate of symptomatic local progression between the treatment arms.
- To compare progression-free survival (PFS) between the two treatment arms.
- To compare rates of progression-free survival between arms for the subsets of patients with and without metastasis directed therapy (MDT) to oligometastatic sites.
- All patients must have a histologically or cytologically proven diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Patients with pure small cell carcinoma* (SCC), sarcomatoid, or squamous cell carcinoma are not eligible. (*morphology must be consistent with SCC; synaptophysin or chromogranin positive by immunohistochemical staining is insufficient to diagnose SCC).
- Patients must have an intact prostate. No prior local therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma is allowed (e.g., brachytherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound [HIFU], cryotherapy, laser ablative therapies). Any prior therapy for benign conditions, such as obstruction, are acceptable (e.g., transurethral resection of the prostate, greenlight laser ablation, microwave ablation).
- Patients must have evidence of metastatic disease on technetium bone scan and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 42 days prior to starting standard systemic therapy. Metastatic disease that is detected by positron emission tomography (PET) scan only (sodium fluoride [NaF], prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA], anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid [FACBC], carbon [C]11) but not conventional imaging (technetium [Tc]99 bone scan, CT or MRI) or solitary metastases by conventional imaging, must be confirmed histologically or cytologically.
- Patients with known brain metastases are not eligible. Brain imaging studies are not required for eligibility if the patient has no neurologic signs or symptoms suggestive of brain metastasis. If brain imaging studies are performed, they must be negative for disease.
- Patients must have received no more than 28 weeks of standard systemic therapy (SST). SST is defined as current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for metastatic prostate cancer.
- Patients must not have progressed while on SST.
- Patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer may receive metastasis directed therapy to up to four sites of disease prior to randomization.
- Patients must have a complete physical examination and medical history within 28 days prior to registration.
- Patients must have a PSA documented prior to initiation of SST and within 28 days prior to registration. Any additional PSAs measured while receiving SST should be recorded.
- Patients must have a testosterone lab documented within 28 days prior to randomization. Any additional testosterone labs measured while receiving SST should be recorded as well as pretreatment initiation if available.
- No other prior malignancy is allowed except for the following: adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, adequately treated stage 0, I or II cancer from which the patient is currently in complete remission, or any other cancer from which the patient has been disease free for three years.
- Patients must be offered the opportunity to participate in translational medicine studies and specimen banking for future studies.
- Patients who can complete Patient-Reported Outcome instruments in English, Spanish or French, must participate in the quality of life studies.
- Patients must be informed of the investigational nature of this study and must sign and give written informed consent in accordance with institutional and federal guidelines.
Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG)
Michael Whalen, MD